December 2019 Issue
The official quarterly publication of the
American Council of the Blind of Oregon.
James Edwards, President, ACB of O
Phone: (541) 404-8214
Email: [email protected]
For more information about the American Council of the Blind of Oregon, go to our web page at:
*** Final Message from Our President James Edwards
As you know by now, we have a new ACBO president! I chose not to run for another term, and we elected Carrie Muth, from the Southwestern chapter,
to take over as president of our organization. I have confidence in Carrie, and believe she will do an outstanding job in her new position. She brings
a professional quality to the position that will serve us well as we move forward. I will be here to support her in every way I can, as I know all of you
will be also.
It’s been a great experience serving as president for ten years, and I truly thank all of you, the current and past board members, as well as all the
individual members for your support and assistance in accomplishing all we did during my term. I’m looking forward to the future of ACBO. We are the vanguards
of the blind community, and it’s our duty to ensure we continue to protect our rights to equality, in education, employment, and the quality of life all
Oregonians are entitled to.
Our convention went well in October, but I was disappointed in the low attendance this year. Those of us who did attend really enjoyed meeting our
guest speakers, Jack and Jill Fox, and they thoroughly enjoyed meeting us, and are looking forward to being invited back to Oregon soon. We will be back
at the Village Green hotel in Cottage Grove next year, and I hope to see many of you there.
Our membership is in a slump at this time, but listening to Dacia Johnson’s OCB report, there are literally thousands of blind and vision impaired
Oregonians out there, so we really need to make an effort to reach them and increase our membership. Pat Wallace is going to be working hard on doing just
that, and we all need to catch his enthusiasm and help him out, he can’t do it alone.
Darian Slayton Fleming is now our second vice president, after serving as our secretary for many years, and the position of secretary is now filled
by Bobbi Earp, a new ACBO board member. I extend a huge thank you to Darian for working so well with me during my term, and a huge welcome to Bobbi in
her new role.
Of course, we kept Sue Schwab on as our treasurer, certainly no need to replace such a capable, willing volunteer as she is to our organization. We
can rest assured we are in the capable hands of our first vice president in the event he should have to take over for any reason. And, thankfully, Teresa
is still the Happy Editor of our Stylus.
I want to give a special thanks to Art Stevenson, for his support and his enthusiastic contribution to ACBO. I could always count on Art to step up
to accept any responsibility, and if I didn’t ask, he would volunteer. Thanks, Art.
We also have a new ACBO representative on the Commission board, Micheal Babcock. Congratulations, Micheal!
I believe we have a bright future for ACBO, and I’m looking forward to being a part of it. Thank you all, for everything, and have a very Merry Christmas!!
Immediate Past President, ACBO
============ Did Carrie get it?
*** A Message from the President Elect
By Carrie Muth, President Elect
What a great convention. Sue Schwab & the convention committee outdid themselves. A special thanks to Bob Johnson for his hard work in getting donations for door prizes & Art Stevenson for his donations of goodies for Bingo prizes; I was fortunate to win 3 rounds of Bingo. We had some great speakers & all enjoyed Jack Fox & Jill Fox, NLS narrators, who entertained us during the Banquet. The saddest thing to many of us was that only 45 people registered for the convention. The Board will be working on ways to help members get to the 2020 convention. ACBO is a great organization, but it is only as strong as its’ members, so plan to attend the 2020 convention where you can make new friends, enjoy some great speakers & activities, & help ACBO fulfill our mission.
The highlight of the convention to me was being elected to serve as Your President. I am excited to take on the responsibilities and plan to do my best to help ACBO grow. Our organization has accomplished a lot the past several years with James Edwards as our leader. By working together, we can continue what he & members have started & grow; we can make a real difference in the lives of Oregonians with vision loss.
One of our greatest challenges during the next couple of years will be growing our membership. Pat Wallace has held some good membership meetings & has been working on ideas to grow. During a meeting he stated we should all make it a mission to get one new member; think about it, our organization could easily double its membership by each of us inviting one person.
James Edwards & I will be traveling to Washington DC in February. I am looking forward to becoming involved with ACB National & bringing back ideas to help ACB of Oregon move forward. Last February I learned a lot working with Art Stevenson & the Legislative Committee; watching the accessible prescription labeling bill go through the steps to become a law & being a part of it was amazing. I also enjoyed providing testimony for the Oregon Commission for the Blind. I am excited to experience the next level.
When we join ACBO we are committing ourselves to help ACBO fulfill its mission; this means volunteering our time to serve. We all have different talents, experiences, & interests; using these skills for ACBO will help us grow. There are many ways to put your talents to use and serving on a committee is a great way to get started. Committees will be appointed during the January Board Meeting. If you have an interest in serving, please reach out to me.
I look forward to the next couple of years. Thank you for giving me the opportunity to put my skills to work for ACBO. I also appreciate those who have come before to lay a solid foundation to grow our organization. Let’s work together to show the strength of the American Council of the Blind of Oregon and make a difference throughout Oregon.
*** Announcing the Launch of ScripTalk Mobile for iPhone
En-Vision America is excited to announce the long awaited arrival of the ScripTalk Mobile app for iPhone.
To successfully install and run the app, you need:
list of 5 items
• iPhone 7 or Higher
• iOS 13
• Visit the Help Section inside the app to find Directions on How to Use
• Support for iPhone 11 is still in beta
• Special RFID Tags placed on your prescription by a participating pharmacy.
The ScripTalk Mobile app was designed with mobility and convenience in mind. We think you will love both the “scan” and “quick scan” buttons. Scan tells
you all of your drug information and Quick Scan is a convenient way to hear only the drug name announced. You can also use the History feature to review
your medications without having to scan them.
Please Note: This app is used to read special RFID Tags placed on your prescription by a participating pharmacy. If you don’t have these special labels,
go immediately to the find pharmacy button (in the app), call us at 1-800-890-1180.
Note from Teresa
I have downloaded and used this app. It is amazingly easy. So much so, I sent my machine back. I like it better than the machine, not only because it is easier to me, but because it stores all the info in the history and is even easier to access. Also it has a ton more info about each medication at the end than you get from using the machine.
============ Did James get it?
*** News from Hull Foundation
for those with Blindness & Low Vision
By Carrie Muth
Hello everyone! The days are getting colder at the park and snow is falling in the mountains. Time to plan to attend the 2020 Winter Adventure Retreat! It will take place February 17-22, 2020. Activities include cross country skiing, snow shoeing, tubing, and other yet to be announced activities. Come hang out in the cozy lodge by the fireplace, get out into the snow, meet new friends and reunite with some old ones!
December 4 – Lunch Bunch Gathering at IHop Restaurant
December 10 – 13 Winter Holiday Getaway – Hull Park
February 17-22 – 2020 Winter Adventure Retreat
For more information, please call 503-668-6195 or email Jennifer at [email protected]
NEEDED: ACBO Representative to serve on the Hull Park Board of Directors
It has been a privilege to serve as the ACBO Representative on the Board of Directors; however, my term is soon over & I will have more responsibilities serving as your president. If you are interested in helping out, contact me. I can be reached by email, [email protected], or by phone, 541-269-1993.
*** WayAround, The Tagging System
that Will Make Your Life Much Easier
Submitted by Teresa Christian
I have not tried this out yet, but plan to do so. If anyone has or does give this a try, please let me know how it works for you.
I have taken the following info from their website.
The Smart Assistant for People Who are Blind
WayAround is the app for your smart device that provides on-demand details about everyday things. The simple tag-and-scan approach lets you quickly and
easily identify things around you. It also provides extra details, like how something works or when it expires.
The result? Doing more of the things you want, with more confidence and more independence.
Better, Faster Information Starts Here.
The WayAround Starter Pack lets you try out all the different types of WayTag™ products: stickers, magnets, buttons, and clips. With multiple styles and
features like on-metal, waterproof, and extreme temperatures, there’s a WayTag product for just about anything.
There is an app for both iPhone and Android phones.
Go check it out
============ Did Sue Schwab get it?
*** Always Educating
By Carrie Muth
How often I am amazed at the seemingless innocent comments, just to realize the ignorance that plagues our world. Ignorance is the lack of knowledge; it
is not stupidity, but a true incomprehension of something.
I have often had comments right after telling someone that I am blind, comments like “What is your Driver’s License Number?” or “It is right over there”.
These we all deal with in various ways. I usually make silly remarks like “They don’t trust me to drive” or “They didn’t teach my guide dog to drive”.
I’ve also been known to take the menu and say, while touching it, “I don’t see any Braille”. Many times, the people are not paying attention; hence the
crazy comment to me after knowing I cannot see. My silly responses use humor to diffuse awkward situations, but I came across something today that required
Someone asked me today how blind people get around without a guide dog. We all know the white cane has been around forever, so, how could someone in their
forties ask this question? I took the time to explain facts, but it bothers me to think how little people are exposed to someone with a disability in today’s
world. It is so important that we live our lives & let people “see” us. They need to see us walking down the street, shopping, going to school, working,
& playing. We need to show the world that we are strong, capable, confident people who have full, rewarding lives; people who shop where they shop, work
where they work, & play where they play. It is up to us to educate others to make it easier for those coming after us. Let’s make a difference & fight
the plague of ignorance.
the word “Blindness” is a synonym of “ignorance”. So, we are not just fighting ignorance; we are preventing people from being blind.
============ Did Leonard get it?
*** Hadley Discussion Groups
Note from Teresa
I didn’t realize there were so many discussion groups till I went to the website for this issue. These are free and open to anyone. Of course by the time you get this the dates will be different so you’ll have to go to the website to get updates. Here is the info from their website.
Call in by phone or computer. Free of charge. Open to all.
If you have a green thumb (or you’d like to have one) you are invited to Hadley’s gardening discussion group! We will swap success stories, talk about
our favorite plants and generally ‘dish the dirt’ on all things horticultural
tune in to Hadley Growers
Want to travel with more confidence and independence? Pack your bags and join the Travel Talk discussion group! Discover tips and tricks and share your
own experiences of traveling with a visual impairment.
tune in to Travel Talk
Is crafting your passion? Do you long for a creative outlet but don’t know where to get started? Join Hadley’s crafting discussion group as we discuss
all things crafty. From knitting to scrapbooking, quilting to sculpting, we will share ideas, tips, and tricks to enjoy many creative endeavors.
tune in to Crafting Circle
Help spark your creative energies, share your writing experiences, offer advice, and gain insight from others. Writers of all abilities are encouraged
to participate in discussion of all genres of writing, including journaling, storytelling, memoirs, and much more.
tune in to Writers’ Circle
Love to cook? Join your fellow Hadley home cooks as we explore cooking tips, tricks, and fun things to try. Share your favorite recipes, gadgets, and helpful
hacks for cooking with a visual impairment.
tune in to What’s Cooking?
Searching for resources specific to vision loss? Have some to share? Join our Resource Roundtable to discover and share tips, unique to vision loss, for
connecting to the information and support you are looking for.
tune in to Resource Roundtable
Get Up and Go!
You CAN stay physically active, no matter your level of vision or fitness! Join us each month to explore the wide variety of options available to you.
Share your own tips and experiences along the way. Continue to enjoy recreational activities with Hadley’s Get Up and Go discussion group.
tune in to Get Up and Go!
Tech it Out
Learn a few tips about everyday technology from a technology expert, ask your questions, and share your experiences.
tune in to Tech it Out
!Hola! Would you like to practice speaking Spanish with others? Maybe you would you like some useful phrases for communicating with a Spanish-speaking
neighbor or others in your community. Come join the Spanish chat! You can just listen in, or speak as often as you want, according to your own comfort
level. ¡Hablamos español!
tune in to Spanish
Learning braille? Join us on these weekly calls as the group discusses various topics and issues related to reading and writing braille. The last session
of each month is an open question-and-answer session.
tune in to Embracing Braille
main region end
Hadley creates personalized learning opportunities that empower people with vision loss to thrive – at home, at work and in their communities.
To get more info go to
*** Southwestern Chapter News
By Carrie Muth, Chapter President
The Coos Bay Fire Department came to our October meeting & discussed fire safety. Our local fire department will install free smoke alarms to local residents. They emphasized the importance of knowing your escape route & meeting place; I remember hearing this as a young kid in school, but having a visual impairment makes it more important. We need to practice our escape routes so we know we can safely exit our home if necessary. It was a very educational talk & we are planning another program with them in which we will get to practice using fire extinguishers.
Our Christmas party will be in December. We are planning a potluck & sing-along. Deb & Leonard Kokel will be leading the singing. It should be great fun.
Now for some sad news, our chapter does not plan to sell candy this year. It has been a very profitable fundraiser for many years, but takes a lot of people power. Leonard Kokel has done an excellent job organizing it. With this change, we have assembled a fundraising committee to develop new ways to raise funds. We have met twice & are working on several ideas. One of the simplest to pass along are donation boxes. These are put in stores so customers can drop their lose change in. I have seen clubs decorate coffee cans. Our chapter had some wooden boxes built with a lock a few years ago. This does not seem like much, but everything adds up.
We hope to see many of you in January at the Board Meeting & Leadership Training.
============ Did Darian get it?
Board Meeting Minutes, October 18, 2019
President James Edwards called the meeting to order shortly after 4 PM due to microphone issues. Following the flag salute, Secretary Slayton Fleming conducted the roll call of officers. All were present except Bob Johnson and Judene Weymouth.
President Edwards called for approval of the agenda. Minutes from July 2019 were accepted as distributed.
Treasurer, Sue Schwab gave the Treasurers report. You may request a copy of the report by emailing Sue at <[email protected]>.
District 1: Columbia chapter-
I spoke with Tom Summerville and they meet on the 2nd Tuesday of the month and still only meet for social purposes. He is very involved with running a homeless shelter and said he doesn’t have much time right now to work on getting more members.
Metro PDX chapter-
4 of our chapter members went to the national convention.
Socials: Both chapters were invited to Sue’s annual picnic at her house in Aug.
Several of us went to a comedy show and then to dinner at a Cuban restaurant.
We are selling calendars and have some for purchase here this weekend.
September 22nd our Pedestrian Safety committee partnered with several other groups concerned with pedestrian safety at an event. They just had a successful White Cane safety day at Portland State University. We collaborated with O&M departments from Portland State University, Portland Department of Transportation, Portland NFB chapter,
TriMet Lift has increasingly reduced services so we started an email list that strictly deals with Lift issues.
Last Friday at our October meeting, we had three officials from Lift come speak to these issues at our chapter meeting.
Several good things came out of that, They addressed some specific concerns and are forming a small team of website testers for their new website regarding Lift rides etc.
The Pioneer Chapter is slowly gaining members.
Last month Sue Staley gave a presentation on importance of being a medical advocate.
One of our members was having trouble with receiving materials in accessible format.
Sue is proud to say, that to persistence and advocacy, Tualaty home health will provide materials in accessible format.
They plan to have a fund-raising event with Karina’s bakery in early November.
Also, they plan to have a speaker on the new schemes at our November meeting.
We also had a great turnout for our picnic in August.
Willamette Chapter has been keeping busy!
In August, which is usually our summer vacation month, we co-hosted a public transit event at Center 50+ in Salem. The Salem Area Mass Transit District
made the single largest expansion in service to the Mid-Valley area in their 40+ year history, adding Saturday service and late evening service, starting the day after Labor Day in September. We wanted to get the information on the new service and schedules into the hands of all transit-dependent citizens
in time for them to take advantage of the new services right from the beginning. Attendance was good; we even stumped the transit district with one of
our questions about the new service (they got back to us later). In the same vein, a number of chapter members took the bus downtown on the first Saturday
the service was available. Saturday service was free during September, and that first Saturday they had a band, food carts, speeches, and all new busses
available for inspection and some try-it-out rides around downtown. Then we went out to lunch and generally had a fine old time.
In August and September Willamette Chapter spent a lot of time and effort working on the upcoming state convention for which we are the host chapter. We’re
looking forward to having a lot of worthwhile information and getting needed ACB of Oregon business taken care of. We’re also looking forward to having
a good time with our comrades from around the state.
We are in an election year for chapter offices, and have nominated candidates for each office. We anticipate some new blood in leadership positions this
year, but celebrate the old guard who has kept the chapter going strong for so long.
Finally, chapter members are partnering with BlindSkills, Inc., a local non-profit, in hosting what we call our Low Vision Lifeskills support group. That
group gets together twice a month and has had presentations on a host of topics, including how to get around town safely, encouraging blind people in our
community to participate in the various activities available to citizens of all abilities, and practical hints for around the home.
We also recognized International White Cane Safety Day on Oct. 15 by parading around the Courthouse Square block with our white canes and guide dogs, giving
out flyers on white cane safety, safety laws and ordinances, and generally trying to be visible in our community. We had about a dozen participants, got
some radio coverage, and then went out for a nice lunch. Who says activism can’t be fun?
We’re looking forward to the convention and the coming year of advocating for issues important to blind and low-vision citizens.
District 2 (Carrie Muth)
District 3: There was no report.
Commission Report: James reported that the board had met to interview candidates to recommend to serve on the Commission Board. Dacia Johnson called James stating that, since we were insisting on this course of action, we would lose our seat at the table. Since it seemed the Commission, supported by Jen from the Governor’s Office objected to our submission of Randy Hauth’s name, James and Art met with Jen Tate. Jen stated that she would be requiring at least three names to be submitted, and did not want to discuss her reasons for rejecting Randy Hauth’s name, the board met again. The board decided to write to the Governor’s Office asking whether this procedure is expected of all boards and for an explanation of why Randy’s name was rejected. We have no answers. We understand that Michael Babcock has submitted his name to the Governor’s Office for consideration. We are waiting to hear an update.
Art encouraged us to support the Commission’s budget process during the legislative session.
Talking Book and Braille Service Report: Darian reported that she contacted Susan Westin from the Talking Book and Braille Library to report that she is assuming the position on the advisory board to replace Jeanne-Marie Moore. Susan Westin was unaware of this. Susan Westin stated that no meetings are planned before the end of 2019. Mary Lee concurred with this report.
Hull Foundation for the Blind: Carrie Muth reported that the Hull Foundation for the Blind is holding several Living With Blindness seminars and Lunch meeting events at senior living and other facilities. There will be a Halloween Monster Mash event at the Hull Park the week following the convention. Carrie also encouraged people to subscribe to the Hull Foundation Newsletter. Carrie also stated that as she is running for president of ACB of Oregon President, if she gets elected, she will need someone to assume the position to represent ACB of Oregon on the Hull Foundation Advisory Board.
Legislative Report Art Stevenson reported this will be a short legislative seminar year. He also encouraged us to support the Commission budget.
Membership Committee reported that the membership committee has met a handful of times. He has invited chapter presidents to join these meetings. The committee is working with Rubin Flores on starting a student chapter. The committee is still exploring starting virtual chapters that might meet by phone or computer. The committee also plans to do a membership recruitment letter through the Oregon Commission for the Blind after the first of the year.
Bylaws Committee: Bobi Earp reported on the meetings held by the board to revise the bylaws. The committee has put together an entirely new document with revised constitution and bylaws as well as supplemental documents about standing rules and policies. A summary of this work was published in “The Stylus”. The board voted to recommend the updated bylaws to the membership for passage at the Sunday membership business meeting.
Convention Committee: Sue Schwab reported on what to expect for the weekend convention activities. There will be a game night during the evening following the board meeting and dinner. Several break-out sessions are planned for Saturday afternoon. The membership meeting will be held on Sunday. Be sure to wear your name tag if you wish to vote during elections.
Nominating Committee: Steve Fort read the nominating slate that will be presented again at the Sunday membership business meeting. Those nominated are: Carrie Muth for president; Leonard Kokel, Pat Schwab, Sue Staley and Art Stevenson for first vice-president; Darian Slayton Fleming for second vice-president; Bobi Earp for secretary and Sue Schwab for treasurer.
There was no Website report.
“The Stylus”: Teresa Christian reported the following:
Next year, I am planning to go back to using the story thread sprinkled throughout the newsletter to announce the contest winner, people seemed to like that.
Breakdown of version counts:
Cartridges, 18 people are signed up to get them, but only 12 people consistently return them.
Email, about 100 people get those
Large print version, 35 people
Braille version, 4 people
If for some reason you’re not receiving the Stylus and you want it, please let me know. I can’t fix what I don’t know is a problem.
I am always looking for articles so if you have something, please email it to me.
If there is a topic you would like covered, please email or call me about it and I’ll see what I can do to find articles on that topic.
There was no Advocacy Liaison report.
There was no report about School for the Blind Preservation.
Natural Disaster Preparedness: There was no actual report. However, Leonard Kokel said that people from the Southwestern Chapter are actively involved in such activities in their area.
There was no old business.
Sue Schwab presented the proposed 2020 Budget. For a copy of the budget write to Sue Schwab: <[email protected]>. The proposed budget was accepted and recommended for consideration at the Sunday Membership business Meeting.
James reported that Darian Slayton Fleming, Carrie Muth, James Edwards and Jeanne-Marie Moore worked on compiling suggested policies to be passed onto the next president and secretary. Darian combed through all minutes she has taken during her tenure as secretary and compiled a list of items the board had asked people to write and submit. None of the work was done following those meetings. Darian wrote policies that the group studied and perfected. The board met to review all of the policies and recommend them for approval at this meeting. All policies were accepted except the one about tips for grant consideration and distribution. This policy will be discussed by the new board in the New Year. All policies will be posted on the website. Darian will provide binders and thumb drives to the new president and secretary containing minutes from her tenure, updated bylaws and policies.
The regular meeting was adjourned.
*** October 20, 2019 ACB of Oregon Membership Business Meeting Summary
If you want a copy of the full business meeting minutes, contact Darian Slayton fleming at [email protected]
President James Edwards opened the membership business meeting at 9:10 AM.
Sue Schwab presented the treasurer’s report through August 31st. The report was accepted.
Email Sue Schwab for full report [email protected]
Next President Edwards asked the treasurer to present the recommended 2020 budget.
For full version email [email protected]
There was motions made and discussion, but the short and long of it was Pat made a motion to increase Hull Foundation to $1000 and increase BlindSkills to $1500. The motion was seconded and passed.
funding for the legislative seminar was discussed. A motion was made to lower the amount for Oregon legislative training by $2000 making the new amount $1000. The motion was seconded and passed.
The membership also discussed presidential travel expense allotment. Because President James has absorbed most of his travel expenses, he was asked to submit as much documentation as he could to reimburse him to some degree and so the organization can get a more realistic picture about what it really does cost. The new allowed amount for presidential travel is now $4000. The motion passed.
Next we discussed the recommended bylaw amendments.
A motion was made and seconded to accept the entire set of amended bylaws and supporting standing rules and policies. The motion passed. The bylaws will be published as presented and replace all preceding versions of our bylaws.
Following the break we proceeded to elections. The nominating slate was presented a final time followed by voting. The results of the elections are as follows: President, Carrie Muth; First Vice-President, Leonard Kokel; Second Vice-President, Darian Slayton Fleming; Secretary, Bobi Earp and Treasurer, Sue Schwab. This leaves a vacancy on the board for District Representative 2 since Carrie will now serve as president. The board will appoint this position at the January board meeting.
Carrie Muth and James Edwards were selected
to attend the ACB midyear meeting and legislative seminar in 2020.
The final item on the agenda was to select the site for the 2020 state convention. After considerable discussion, it was decided to hold the convention in the Eugene area. James will investigate various sites. The board will finalize these details and advise the membership.
The meeting was adjourned at 12 PM.
*** Butterfinger Pie Recipe
By Carrie Muth
Several years ago a friend shared this recipe on Facebook; I have made it a few times over the years. It is simple & delicious.
6 (2 1/8 ounce) Butterfinger candy bars, crushed
1 8 ounce package cream cheese
1 12 ounce carton Cool Whip
1 graham cracker crust
Mix first three ingredients together.
Put mixture into pie crust.
Chill in the refrigerator for a couple of hours
** Note: I have left some of the crushed Butterfinger out to put on the top or you could put Butterfinger Bites on top.
============ Did Bobi get it?
============ This issues lucky winner is James Edwards
James, you know the drill, give me a call or an email or a text and let me know you saw this.
About the submission Contest
As you all know by now, every Stylus issue has a contest for submitting items that will potentially go in the Stylus. Your name will be entered once for each item you submit to me for the upcoming issue. For example, if you submit 10 items, your name will be entered 10 times in the drawing. You can send as many items as you like and whether or not it makes it into the next issue, your name will still go into the drawing.
One name will be selected and that lucky person will receive $25. The winner must call or email me to let me know they discovered their name as being the winner for this issue. Your $25 check will be released after you contact me.
Keep those submissions coming and good luck!!
To change your address, request alternative formats for ACB publications, or request financial documents,
contact our state treasurer, Sue Schwab.
eMail: [email protected]
4352 Trapper Drive NE
Salem, Oregon 97305
Stylus Editor, Teresa Christian
Thanks for reading this issue of the Stylus!
May you always have enough!
In love and light, your happy editor, Teresa Christian